NDN Blog

Fighting to Keep the Internet Open and Free - An Op-Ed in The Hill

This piece, co-written with Mobile Future's Jonathan Spalter, originally appeared in the Hill on Wednesday, October 22nd, 2014.

This week, as the world’s Internet diplomats descend on Busan, South Korea for the important global gathering of the United Nations’ International Telecommunications Union (ITU), they would do well to do a quick status update on the health and well-being of the Internet and the future of global communications.  

For the truth is that this remarkable thing we call the Internet may be much more fragile than it appears. 
 
Cyber-criminals, rogue states and adversaries are making the Internet far less safe for consumers through the persistent and escalating theft of personal data.  
 
Autocratic governments are making a major effort to bring the day-to-day governance of the Internet under their control. 
 
Industrial espionage has dramatically escalated across the world, with some estimates now suggesting that global corporations are losing hundreds of billions of dollars in intellectual property every year.
 
Spectrum, the electromagnetic waves which form the invisible infrastructure for the mobile Internet, increasingly is in short global supply as demand continues to accelerate through the developed and developing world.
 
Meanwhile, protectionist trade policies are threatening to create not a single global Internet, but a series of regional intranets that replicate the kind of customs regimes we see on physical borders today.  
 
To counter these threats to the Internet, it will be critical at this meeting for America’s delegation to be crystal clear about what concrete steps need to be taken to ensure that the Internet can remain resilient, accessible, free and secure, now and for future generations.  
 
In that regard, we offer the following agenda for the U.S. government both in Busan and going forward: 
 
Defend the current multi-stakeholder approach to Internet governance – The American delegation should re-affirm our nation’s principled commitment to the current multi-stakeholder approach which limits the ability of authoritarian governments to exert undue influence. It also must reiterate that the proposed transition of certain Internet domain name functions, known as IANA, from the U.S. government to the global multistakeholder community through a process convened by ICANN (the organization responsible for technical coordination of  the domain name system ) must satisfy all applicable conditions before it comes into effect, and be clearly understood to be undertaken as a means to reinforce the integrity and viability of the current system.
 
Finish the ambitious Pacific and Atlantic trade agreements – It is important for the Administration to complete the two current regional trade agreements which will begin to put a more solid global legal framework underneath the digital economy. Most of the current trade treaties were completed prior to the arrival of the Internet, and a whole new generation of trade agreements will need to be negotiated to extend the current liberal system to a new era of digital commerce. These binding treaties will be essential to stem the exploding level of industrial espionage and corporate cyber theft which itself has become one of the biggest threats to global commerce.   
 
Maintain a “light touch” when it comes to regulation– For 20 years, the U.S. government has argued that the Internet must not be regulated at home or abroad as a public utility-style telecom service. This legal distinction has been essential to the Internet’s explosive growth, and the innovation we’ve seen.   If the FCC were to declare, as some have requested, that wireline and wireless broadband and other services be reclassified as a Title II telecommunications service, it would create an opening for the Internet to become globally regulated by the ITU, a body that will likely be chaired by a Chinese government official in the coming years. It may also provide “cover” for certain authoritarian regimes to point to the more heavy-handed new Internet regulation in the United States as justification for their own greater control of the Internet in their societies. 
 
Encourage governments to keep taxes on Internet devices and services low – In far too many countries, including here in the United States, mobile devices, mobile service, computers and other devices and services – which make up the Internet as we know it today – are taxed at levels which prevent widespread consumer access, and at rates which are far greater than other common goods and services. The U.S. government should continue to work with foreign governments to build internal regulatory and fiscal frameworks which encourage wide spread adoption and the democratization of information services. And we must lead by example by lowering mobile tax rates here at home.   
 
Ramp-up White House policy leadership – Both Secretaries of State Clinton and Kerry put Internet freedom high on the list of key American national security priorities. That was a wise first step. But now, given the enormous and increasing global economic, cultural, and security stakes involved in maintaining a flourishing and secure Internet, it is time for the White House itself to exert more hands-on leadership in, and coordination of, overall Internet policy management across government.
 
For Americans and many people around the world the Internet represents freedom, opportunity, and knowledge – a world of possibility and openness. But to many autocratic governments and rogue actors on the global stage, the very openness of the Internet is a threat to their far more oppressive understanding of what civil society means. In recent years, these and other forces are working to weaken the Internet, and challenge its primacy in the lives of billions of people around the world. To ensure that the Internet continues to evolve and strengthen, the United States government will need to become far more assertive on the international stage in shaping the global consensus for how we can ensure our grand kids won’t be talking about this thing called the Internet the way we talk about the League of Nations today. A strong and aggressive performance in South Korea over the next few weeks by the United States delegation will be an important first step in this vital effort.  
 
Rosenberg is president of the think tank NDN.  Spalter, chair of Mobile Future, was a senior national security official in the Clinton administration.

This piece, co-written with Mobile Future's Jonathan Spalter, originally appeared in the Hill on Wednesday, October 22nd, 2014.

Other Pieces on the Liberal International Order:

An Enduring Legacy: The Democratic Party and Free and Open Trade, January 21st, 2014, Huffington Post.  The global system created by Presidents FDR and Truman has done more to create opportunity, reduce poverty and advance democracy than perhaps any other policies in history. 

Forward, or Backward? October 25th, 2012, Letras Libres.  The English language version of my major essay about the 2012 elections which originally appeared in the October issue of the Mexico City based Spanish language journal, Letras Libres.

Video: The Age of Possibility,  April 29th, 2011, Tisch College, Tufts University. Simon Rosenberg explores the notion that we are entering an era of unprecedented opportunity and possibility, and that more is possible today for the people of the world than ever before.

Crafting an American Response to the Rise of the Rest, January 21, 2010, Salon.com. In this essay written for Salon, Simon lays out three strategies for the Obama Administration to craft a comprehensive response to the new politics of the 21st Century.

Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century, July 24, 2009, Demos.  An essay which ran as part of a leading British think tank's series of essays on the future of center-left politics.

 

Obama: No Realist He, June 16, 2009, Huffington Post. Simon offers some thoughts about Obama's global brand in the early days of the Iranian uprising. The essay drew many comments in its more than 24 hours on the front page of Huffington Post.

# of People DHS Is Removing/Returning From US Continues to Decline

Despite Central American Migrant Crisis, The Number of People DHS Is Removing and Returning to Other Countries From the US Continues to Decline

Yesterday, DHS released “Immigration Enforcement Actions,” one of its annual reports looking at the immigration enforcement system (a second more detailed report on deportations will be coming out in a few weeks).

Among the more interesting findings is that continued decline of the total number of people DHS is removing from the US and returning to other countries.   This decline comes despite evidence of significant increases of unauthorized migration from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. 

At the very least this calls into question the argument some have made that the Administration has “ratcheted” up immigration enforcement as the total number of people DHS is taking out of the US each year is less than half of what it was a decade ago. 

Additionally, this data confirms one of the more important trends in migration in recent years:  the decline of people attempting to enter the US without permission, and the stabilization of the undocumented population here. Please check out the graphs below.  For a comprehensive look at the border trends this data speaks to, read our recent report: “NDN/NPI Report on Central American Migrants and President Obama’s Immigration/Border Enforcement Record.”

 

Hispanic Uninsured Rate Drops By One Third In Just 1st Year of ACA

Today’s Los Angeles Times reports on a new study showing that the uninsured rate for Hispanic adults in the US dropped from 36% to 23% in just the first year of the Affordable Care Act.   These dramatic gains of course took place even without two states with enormous Hispanic populations, Florida and Texas, expanding their Medicaid programs.

As I wrote last year, given the high number of Hispanics without health insurance in the US, it is possible that the Affordable Care Act will affect more Hispanic families over the next few years than any version of Comprehensive Immigration Reform.

“The ACA is in the process of becoming the legislation that has done more to benefit Hispanic families than any other,” said Simon Rosenberg, President of NDN, a think tank in Washington, DC.  “These gains are dramatic.  The quality of life of millions of Hispanics is far better today than it was just a year ago.  And it just the beginning.”    

Op-Ed: "The Liberal Order Needs An Upgrade"

I have a new op-ed running in US News this morning timed to the President’s important UN speech tomorrow. You can read it in full below or at the US News site here

The Liberal Order Needs An Upgrade

On Wednesday, President Barack Obama will address the United Nations General Assembly. We know the speech will focus on a very full slate of immediate global challenges, including the Islamic State group and U.S. airstrikes in Syria, as well as Iranian nuclear ambitions, Russia’s adventurism and Ebola. But it is my hope that the speech also finds time to discuss a subject very appropriate for the U.N. on the cusp of its 70th anniversary: the need to reinvigorate and modernize an aging liberal international order.

The world as we know it is going through a truly profound and historic set of changes in demographics and in the distribution of economic and political power. A long 500-year run of Western preeminence is giving way to a world where power and opportunity will be far more distributed among the people of the world. More than 50 percent of the world's population is under the age of 30 today, and it is those emerging leaders who will do much to determine the fate of their countries and the rest of the world. Much more must be done to help create a sense of ownership in the current liberal order for these emerging powers and leaders, so they can become powerful stewards of what has been built.

Over the coming generation, the American president should become a champion of this process of reinvigoration. What exactly a project like this looks like is hard to know at this point, but I offer up four areas the president could address this week to start a conversation in earnest:

1) The Middle East: It is long past time to put on the table what is obvious to all: The greatest threat to world peace today is the chaos emanating from the Middle East and North Africa. No other part of the world is so actively resisting modernity and the core values of the United Nations as the despotic governments of the region. Anti-modern radicals, funded and aided by regional elites, have exported their barbarism far beyond the region itself. And with a vast wave of young people coming into adulthood in the region over the next decade, the opportunity for a dramatic escalation of this radicalism is staring the entire world in the face.

In exchange for ridding the region of the latest dangerous set of radicals, the developed world, backed by the U.N., should demand the region’s leaders begin to engage in a conversation about how to bring an end to this era of chaos. Plans for investing in everyday people, as well as for creating a regional Marshall plan, should to be discussed. A forum for forging a regional Sunni-Shiite détente should be established. All countries in the region should commit to ceasing the arming of proxies and investing in institutions of radicalization like Wahhabi madrassas, which have done so much to fuel extraordinary levels of violence.

Additionally, the president should identify the very real global threat of the “oil curse,” or of our learned experience that much of the chaos the world is seeing today is a result of the reckless behavior of oil producing nations. A plan to create a totally different global energy paradigm should be articulated, with the goal of universal energy independence for all nations by 2050 through investments in renewables and other technologies put on the table for debate.  

2) Modernizing the global trade system: The president should also offer a full-throated defense of the two major trade agreements his team is negotiating now. Affecting two-thirds of the global economy, these two big trade agreements will usher in a period of renewal and modernization of our global trading system. The last period of structural reform took place before the advent of the Internet and our recent wave of globalization. For this system to remain relevant, it will need an extended period of modernization, as new innovations like 3-D printing and peer-to-peer banking will challenge the current, very 20th century, orientation of our global trade system; new voices from the developing world will need to have far greater influence in shaping a more modern system.

3) Keeping the Internet open and free: There has perhaps never been a tool as powerful for advancing the global liberal order as the Internet. It should be a far more important priority of the president to ensure the Internet stays open and free for the people of the world in the years ahead. A combination of factors – increasingly powerful cybercriminals, efforts by despotic nations to seize control over Internet governance, growing censorship and very legitimate fears about privacy – all have made the Internet far more fragile an undertaking than is commonly understood. In his speech this week, the president should offer an aggressive defense of the Internet, make clear he will oppose greater governmental control over it, and reaffirm his commitment to the current multi-stakeholder system of Internet governance.

4) Expansion of the Security Council: The president should acknowledge that the current structure of the United Nations Security Council no longer represents the world as it is today. He can begin by suggesting that the three largest countries in the world not on the permanent council – India, Indonesia and Brazil – be added. More reforms should be considered.

Like an old building needing an upgrade, the liberal international order, now almost 70 years old, needs to go through a period of renewal and reform. The president should lead this effort. This order has helped usher in a remarkable period of prosperity and relative peace in the world. As the world changes, and a long period of Western dominance of world affairs comes to an end, the need to modernize and maintain this order is perhaps the greatest responsibility the American president has today. I hope our president can begin this conversation in his speech to the U.N., and begin a discussion that will ensure the values articulated in Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s “four freedoms” prevail in this uncertain but promising century.

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Related writings/videos:

An Enduring Legacy: The Democratic Party and Free and Open Trade, January 21st, 2014, Huffington Post.  The global system created by Presidents FDR and Truman has done more to create opportunity, reduce poverty and advance democracy than perhaps any other policies in history. 

Forward, or Backward? October 25th, 2012, Letras Libres.  The English language version of my major essay about the 2012 elections which originally appeared in the October issue of the Mexico City based Spanish language journal, Letras Libres.

Video: The Age of Possibility,  April 29th, 2011, Tisch College, Tufts University. Simon Rosenberg explores the notion that we are entering an era of unprecedented opportunity and possibility, and that more is possible today for the people of the world than ever before.

Crafting an American Response to the Rise of the Rest, January 21, 2010, Salon.com. In this essay written for Salon, Simon lays out three strategies for the Obama Administration to craft a comprehensive response to the new politics of the 21st Century.

Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century, July 24, 2009, Demos.  An essay which ran as part of a leading British think tank's series of essays on the future of center-left politics.

Obama: No Realist He, June 16, 2009, Huffington Post. Simon offers some thoughts about Obama's global brand in the early days of the Iranian uprising. The essay drew many comments in its more than 24 hours on the front page of Huffington Post.

Op-Ed - "To Restore Prosperity, Puerto Rico Should Look to Ireland"

Dr. Shapiro and I have op-eds running in English and Spanish now on Fusion/Univision on the future of Puerto Rico. The English version can be found here, and below.  And the Spanish version here.  The op-eds are derived from Rob's recent paper on the subject which you can find here

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To Restore Prosperity, Puerto Rico Should Look to Ireland

How much longer will the people of Puerto Rico have to live with failed economic policies? It must be clear by now that the Commonwealth reliance on U.S. corporate tax preferences for U.S. companies locating operations there ran its course many years ago. Low tax rates matter to foreign investors, but it’s time for Puerto Rico to expand its horizons well beyond the United States. Rather, the Island should consider the example of Ireland, which a generation ago was the poorest member of the European Union (EU) – and became one of its most prosperous members by 2006.

In the late 1980s, Irish policy planners recognized that the fastest way to modernize their economy and turbo-charge productivity and growth was large-scale foreign direct investment (FDI). They also knew that with scores of middle-income countries vying for FDI, Ireland needed a comparative advantage. So they offered up Ireland as a low-wage, low-cost platform for multinationals from everywhere but Europe to enter the huge EU market. But they also had to make Ireland the most attractive place in the region for foreign investment. So in addition to the tax breaks that countries offered, the Irish government ramped up its public investments in modern infrastructure, they created 10 "enterprise zones" for foreign investors and equipped each zone with a new institution for advanced training and education, and they rolled out an array of special services and subsidies for foreign multinationals. The program even included helping foreign companies find the best locations and workers to meet their needs and providing relief from selected regulations and taxes for individual companies.

From 1987 to 2006, more than 1,000 multinational companies established new facilities in Ireland, including Microsoft, Dell, and Citicorp. The country’s real GDP grew at an average annual rate of 6.9 percent over that period, unemployment fell from 17 percent to 4 percent, the brain-drain of highly-educated young Irish was reversed, and the government’s debt as a share of GDP declined from 112 percent to 33 percent.

Like Ireland and the E.U., Puerto Rico and the mainland United States share a common currency, and virtually everything made in the Commonwealth enters U.S. markets without cumbersome customs and other import regulation. In short, Puerto Rico has a real opportunity to attract large-scale FDI from around the world by offering itself as a low-wage, low-cost platform for multinationals from Latin American, Asia and Europe to sell into the huge American market.

To succeed as Ireland did, Puerto Rico will have to undertake a comparable commitment to undertake difficult spending and tax reform, including targeted increases in public investments in education and infrastructure while still bringing down budget deficits. The Commonwealth government also must repair its tattered image with large foreign investors. To restore their confidence, Puerto Rico must step back from a possible debt default and from proposed changes in its bankruptcy laws to word off technical defaults by its public utilities. In this context, Puerto Rico also can ill-afford widely-publicized controversies that cast doubt on the Government’s commitment to keeps its word, such as current efforts by the Commonwealth Treasurer to negate its legal agreement to provide tax credits for tax over-payments to one of the Island’s major financial institutions, the Doral Financial Corporation.

The alternative is that the future for Puerto Ricans will look much like their present and recent past. After nearly a decade of stagnation and recession, the economy is 13 percent smaller than it was in 2004 – compared to Puerto Rico’s 13 Caribbean neighbors, which have averaged 2 percent annual GDP growth over the same period. That’s unsurprising. Business investment has grown in Puerto Rico at half the rate as elsewhere in the Caribbean. Capital flight has accelerated: foreign financial flows have been negative since 2006; and more recently, FDI flows turned negative as well. Unemployment is double the rate of the U.S. and nearly percent among the young, and the labor participation rate is the lowest in the Western Hemisphere. Moreover, public debt has soared from 66 percent of GNP to 96 percent, and both Moody’s and Standard & Poors rate the Commonwealth’s bonds as junk.

Here’s what ought to be the bottom line: While the per capita income of the Irish people increased from 60 percent of the EU average in 1987 to 136 percent of the average in 2003, per capita income in Puerto Rico today is seven percent less than it was in 2006. The choice – a hard road to long-term prosperity or the easy road to further decline – is Puerto Rico’s.

Dr. Robert Shapiro, former Under Secretary of Commerce for Economic Affairs in the Clinton administration is chairman of Sonecon, LLC, an economic advisory firm in Washington D.C. He is also an advisor to the Doral Financial Corporation and the International Monetary Fund.

Simon Rosenberg is president of NDN, a Washington-based think tank, which works on US-Latin America policy issues.

Tue, Sept 23 - Simon to Join Panel On The Latino Vote in 2014 at George Washington University

Next Tuesday, 9/23, I will take part in a panel to discuss on the role of the Latino Vote in the midterm elections. I will join representatives from the Center for American Progress, the National Council of La Raza, the Heritage Foundation, and Libre Initiative. 

The panel will touch on the role of the Latino electorate in American politics thus far, including how it played a pivotol role in President Obama's 2012 re-election effort. We will also discuss how the growing electorate will impact the midterms and the what issues the Latino community is most concerned about in 2014. 

The event is on September 23rd at 7 PM at the GWU Marvin Center's 3rd Floor Amphitheather. For more information, please contact olas@gwu.edu

Today, Sept 16th - NDN Hosts DHS Deputy Secretary Mayorkas at the National Press Club

NDN and its "21st Century Border Initiative" are pleased to invite you to an important today by Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Alejandro Mayorkas.

Deputy Secretary Mayorkas will discuss the Obama Administration's border security strategy and comprehensive response to the influx of unaccompanied minors in the Southwest border. Over the summer, the Administration engaged in an aggressive response to stem the flow of Central American migrants. In July and August, we have seen a dramatic drop in the number of migrants attempting to cross the southwest border.   

The event will take place today Tuesday, September 16th in the First Amendment Lounge at the National Press Club529 14th Street NW, 13th Floor. Please arrive by 9:50 am, so the event can begin promptly at 10 am. 

If you have any questions or issues, please contact ccantor@ndn.org.

We look forward to seeing you this morning! 

Paper: To Reclaim Prosperity, Puerto Rico Should Adapt Ireland’s Model for Modernization

Today, NDN has released a new paper from Dr. Rob Shapiro: “To Reclaim Prosperity, Puerto Rico Should Adapt Ireland’s Model for Modernization And Focus on Attracting Investors from Around the World.”  You will be able to find the full paper below in pdf form.  

In this thoughtful prescription for Puerto Rico’s future, Dr. Shapiro writes:

“Puerto Rico’s current and long-standing program for economic growth has clearly failed, and the Commonwealth government and the people it serves need a new approach.  For nearly two generations, the Island’s economic policy has focused on preserving U.S. corporate tax preferences for American firms that locate operations in the Commonwealth.  The record shows that this singular focus has produced economic decline.  Instead, Puerto Rico should adopt a version of Ireland’s economic approach, which used targeted public investments, tax preferences, and the country’s low-cost access to markets in the European Union (E.U.), in order attract large scale foreign direct investments (FDI).  In the process, Ireland transformed itself over one generation from the poorest country in the E.U. to one of its most prosperous members.”

“NDN is proud to release this new paper which we hope will become an important part of the debate about Puerto Rico’s future,” said Simon Rosenberg, President of NDN, a DC based think tank. “The commonwealth's economic course is unsustainable.  Dr. Shapiro offers a powerful vision for how Puerto Rico can regain control over its own destiny, and stride confidently into the far more competitive world of the 21st century.” 

Started in 2005, NDN and its sister educational arm, the New Policy Institute, are well established thought leaders on US-Latin American Relations, the US-Mexico partnership and Latino issues in domestic US politics.   Dr. Rob Shapiro, former Under Secretary of Commerce for Economic Affairs, Chairs NDN’s Globalization Initiative.  

NDN/SR Statement on Obama Immigration Decision, Deportations

Today’s decision to delay is a pragmatic recognition that given the election, and a very crowded Presidential agenda, the Administration will be more likely to successfully sell whatever action they take to the public after the election than before.  Am sure this was a tough decision but I think it is was the right one.

Immigration advocates should be careful to temper their reaction.  At the end of the day we are talking about a six week delay on an issue of enormous consequence.    It is more important that it get done right than fast.  

In discussing deportations, it is also important to consider how much the President has already done.   The 2011, DHS’s “Morton Memos” made it official government policy to end deportation of undocumented immigrants without criminal records.   Just a few years into this new policy, in 2013, we saw the results of this new strategy – all but 10,000 of the 370,000 deported either had a criminal record or were caught entering the country without permission; and the total number of people deported from the interior of the US had plummeted.   The practical effect of these changes is the threat of deportation has already been lifted for the vast majority of undocumented immigrants living in the United States.  The assertion by some that delay means tens of thousands more “innocent” immigrants will be deported are at best exaggerating the short term impact of today’s decision.     

For the data backing all this up see our recent report: http://www.ndn.org/blog/2014/07/timely-new-ndn-report-central-american-migrants-obama-borderimmigration-enforcement-rec

-          Simon Rosenberg, President, NDN/New Policy Institute

Update: I am quoted in stories today on the President's decision in MSNBC, Huffington Post, Fusion and The New Republic.

Pew Report Shows Undoc Imm Pop Has Not Grown Since Obama Took Office

There are many interesting takeaways from the new Pew Hispanic report on the undocumented immigrant population in the US, but one to draw attention to is that the undocumented immigrant population under President Obama has not grown, and is now almost a million less than in the latter years of the Bush Presidency.   The report can be found here

As we wrote in a recent report, that there has been no increase in the undocumented population during the Obama Presidency has to taken as a sign of the success of the Administration’s management of the border and immigration system in the US.   In the Clinton era Presidency the nation gained on average over 600,000 undocumented immigrants each year.  Under Bush is was over 400,000 a year.   Under Obama, it has been on zero.   It is a sea change.

While the slower economy of this era is certainly a factor in this decline, our report argues that changes in Mexico and tougher enforcement at the border has contributed to the plummeting of flow of undocumented immigrants into the US.   Remember, the unemployment rate has dropped almost 4 entire percentage points during the Obama Presidency.   So while the economy is in far better shape and producing far many more jobs than during the Great Recession, there has been no parallel uptick in the undocumented population.    From a statistical standpoint this means of course there are other factors at play.   The two we dwell on is the enhanced deterrent effect of the prioritization of apprehending illegal entrants in the Obama era, and improving socio-economic circumstances in Mexico itself.  

 

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